Over 46 million people globally have Alzheimer’s disease. This is projected to reach 75 million by 2030, and 131 million by 2050. Without new drug therapies, the economic and healthcare cost burden of dementia - including Alzheimer's disease - is estimated to exceed $1tn per year in the next decade* [World Alzheimer’s Report 2015].
Alzheimer’s – a highly complex disease with risk factors based in genetics, lifestyle, age, and environment – has seen no new approved drug therapy since 2003; and clinical trial failure rates run at over 99%. Cytox aims to improve clinical trial outcomes through patient stratification and the genetic characterisation of Alzheimer’s disease.
Cytox approach - Polygenic Risk Scoring (PRS)
Cytox is a world-leader in developing and commercialising polygenic risk scoring (PRS) algorithms to characterise an individual’s genetic risk for developing Alzheimer's disease. A polygenic risk score, also called a polygenic score, genetic risk score, hazard score or genome-wide score, provides a probability of a disease trait arising, based on multiple genetic loci and their associated disease-causing weights.
Cytox’s products to characterise Alzheimer’s disease assess several hundred thousand single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to generate a PRS that provides a probability, as determined by an individual’s genetics, of disease occuring, and projected timings for the onset of disease.
Cytox's approaches are being actively evaluated today by global pharma, biotech and sponsors of larger cohort studies as a more rigorous and cost-effective means to improve stratification of at-risk subjects for participation in clinical trials.
genoSCORETM - PATIENT STRATIFICATION FOR CLINICAL TRIALS
genoSCORE™ combines Cytox’s proprietary technologies variaTECT™, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profiling array, with SNPfitR™analytical and interpretive software, to give a PRS that predicts any individual’s risk of developing Alzheimers disease.
Cytox is commercialising a hypothesis-free variant selection model that interrogates several hundred thousand [MM1] SNPs that are the most important for disease progression and development, identified through internal research combined with the latest public domain data.
Developers of new Alzheimer’s therapies, recruiting patients to clinical studies, can use genoSCORE™ to ensure selection of relevant patients – those most likely to experience near-term disease progression.
genoTORTM – mTOR TARGETED DRUG DEVELOPMENT
genoTOR™ characterises an individual’s genetic profile linked to mTOR-regulated signalling pathways, mechanisms known to affect the risk of Alzheimer's and dementia. It is now widely accepted that the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease involves defects in cell cycle regulation. Many cellular processes are controlled by the mTOR pathway and differentially expressed mTOR pathway genes may regulate key functions linked to Alzheimer’s disease.
genoTOR™calculates a SNP burden score for 21 different pathways associated with mTOR, providing insight into Alzheimer's disease subjects who phenotypically show similar symptoms, but genotypically may be quite different.
For developers of new Alzheimer’s therapies targeting this pathway, genoTOR™ enables a better understanding of the genetics at an m-TOR related pathway level with a view to identifying patients that may be best suited for enrolment in to clinical trials of based on drug mechanism of action.